Size1¼ inch to 2 inches (3 - 5 cm)
DietInsects and other small rainforest invertebrates
RangeCentral America to Northern South America
HabitatDamp forest floor and low vegetation
- Colors and color patterns vary by species, but all are brightly colored. Spot patterns on each individual are unique and may change as the animal matures.
- Sizes range from about 1¼ inch to 2 inches (3 – 5 cm).
- Glands on the skin produce toxins that deter predators. The toxicity is derived from insects that the frog eats and toxicity varies considerably from species to species.
Poison dart frogs’ toxicity varies depending on their diet
- Diet consists of insects and other small rainforest invertebrates.
- This group of frogs occurs from Central America to Northern South America. Some species are restricted in their distribution to small areas within this region.
- The poison dart frog is found mostly in humid lowlands and in rainforest areas at elevations less than about 2,600 feet (800 m).
- They inhabit the damp forest floor and low vegetation except when the male carries tadpoles up into tree cavities (see below).
- Mating occurs throughout the rainy season. The male actively courts the female with vocalizations and posturing. Once paired, she is attentive to him and will fight other females to maintain her exclusive access to him.
- Eggs are laid in the damp litter on the forest floor and the male guards them for 10 to 16 days until the tadpoles hatch.
- The male then carries one tadpole at a time on his back to a nearby water-filled feature such as a small seasonal pond, tree cavity, large cup-like leaf or depression in a rock. The tadpole is attached to the male’s back by thick mucus secretions. The male deposits one tadpole in each location.
- The tadpole metamorphoses into a frog in 70 to 90 days. It reaches sexual maturity in 12 to 18 months. The adults can live 4 to 6 years in the wild and 10 to12 years in a zoological environment.
- “Least Concern” on the IUCN Red List.
- Appendix II of CITES.
- The adults of all species are diurnal (active during the day) and mostly remain on the ground.